Module D – Lessons 61 to 66


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How Does Your Body Work?

Lesson 61 – Part Three

NEW WORDS: Grammy, Radcliffe, Troy, Welbody’s, analytic, appendix, audit, auditory, awards, ballyhoo, bendable, biography, blends, childish, circulatory, cochlea, connecting, corrective, cran, creativity, dealing, defeating, demonstrates, disabilities, discussions, ear’s, eardrum, effectively, esophagus, examines, excretory, exhale, function, functions, gesture, gland, glands, heals, holistic, hurray, imitate, impacts, inability, innermost, insight, inspiring, intestines, introduces, intuition, involving, ium, kidneys, lining, linking, membrane, mounting, mythology, narrator, outburst, overcoming, positions, procedure, productive, reader’s, reasoning, respiration, respiratory, responsive, sensory, shinbone, slows, specializes, spiral, spongy, spout, sternum’s, stirrup, successfully, tantrums, tapping, teacher’s, toxins, treating, tuning, understands, vertebra, vibrates, vibrating, vibration 

Chapter Nine: Ears and Hearing
Boys and girls, today you are going to learn about the sense of hearing. I’m an expert on eyes and vision, but not on ears and hearing. That’s why I brought in a friend of mine. This is Dr. Audit. She is an ear doctor. She will tell you all sorts of interesting things about your ears! So please welcome Dr. Kim Audit.

Hi! Can you all hear me? You can? Well, then, tell your ears thanks! Your ears work for you all day long. They tune into all kinds of sounds. They help you learn during school. They help you stay safe on the playground. When was the last time you thanked your ears for all the help they give you?

I’m here to teach you about ears and hearing. But I’d like to start by using this drum to tell you about sound waves. Let me give it a couple of taps. A drum is just a thin membrane, or skin, that’s been pulled tight over a frame. When you hit a drum, the membrane begins to vibrate. To vibrate means to move back and forth rapidly. The vibrations of the drum create vibrations in the air. The vibrations in the air are called sound waves!


Now back to your ears. Your ears are made up of three parts: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The part of your ear that you see on the side of your head is called the outer ear. The outer ear is made of cartilage and fat. The outer ear may look funny, but its shape is a good one for catching sounds. That’s really the outer ear’s main job—to catch sounds and guide them into the middle ear. The outer ear has an opening in it called the ear canal. The ear canal is a tube that lets sound enter your skull.

The ear canal is lined with hairs and glands that produce ear wax. Ear wax helps to protect the ear. It also helps keep germs out of your ears. The ear canal leads to the eardrum. The eardrum is a lot like the drum I brought in today. It has a thin membrane that is stretched tightly across the ear canal. When sounds reach the eardrum, they make the eardrum vibrate.

The middle ear is made up of three small bones with funny names: the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup. These bones are named for things that they look like. One looks like a hammer. Another looks like an anvil — the piece of iron on which a blacksmith bangs hot metal into shape. The last one looks like a stirrup that you put your foot in when you are mounting a horse.


These bones are very tiny. The stirrup is the size of a grain of sand. It is the smallest bone in the body. All three bones are very sensitive to sound waves. They vibrate when they are struck by sound waves and they pass vibrations to a part in the inner ear called the cochlea.

The cochlea is a fluid-filled coil, shaped like a snail’s shell. It is lined with hairs, which are connected to nerves. Sound waves from the middle ear make these hairs vibrate. Then, the nerves connected to the hairs send messages to the brain through the auditory nerve. That’s how your ears let you hear what I’m saying.

Hearing is pretty amazing if you think about it. When I hit this drum, the sound waves travel across the room. Some of those waves enter your outer ear and are guided down the ear canal to your eardrum. The sound waves make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrating eardrum makes the tiny bones in your middle ear vibrate, and these bones make the tiny hairs in your cochlea vibrate. Then, the nerves attached to these hairs send messages to your brain. All of this happens quicker than the time it just took you to read this sentence!


Chapter Ten: Overcoming Disabilities, Part One
Last time, I told you a little bit about hearing. Earlier, Dr. Si-Yu told you about eyes and vision. Today, I would like you to think about what it would be like if you couldn’t hear or couldn’t see. Millions of people live with poor hearing, or with no hearing at all. These people suffer from deafness. Imagine, if you can, what it would be like to be completely deaf. How would you know what other people are saying? After all, you could not hear their words.

Many deaf people use sign language. Sign language is a way to communicate without speaking. One person makes signs with her hands that stand for words and letters. The other person sees the signs and understands the message. The two women on this slide are using sign language.

Did you know that there is a gesture or sign in American Sign Language for each letter in the alphabet? See if you can spell out your name using the signs shown on this next slide. Sign language is one way deaf people can communicate. There are also other ways. Some deaf people can “read lips.” That means they carefully watch a person’s lips move as he is speaking. They can tell what the person is saying by looking at how his lips are moving.


How? A person’s lips take on different shapes and positions as he says different sounds. Try looking in the mirror sometime while you are talking to see how your lips move. Someone who reads lips “translates” what a person is saying by studying the different shapes and positions of his lips. Isn’t that amazing? It takes much time and practice to learn how to use sign language and how to read lips.

Now, I’d like you to try to think what life would be like if you could not see. What would it be like to be blind? How would you find your way around? How would you read? Blind people find ways to cope with their disability. Many blind people use a cane to help them get around. By tapping in front of them, they can tell where there are walls. They can tell when they need to step up and when they need to step down. Some blind people use seeing-eye dogs to help them get around. These dogs are also known as guide dogs. They are specially trained to help blind people get from place to place safely.

Blind people can also learn to use their other senses to make up for their inability to see. A blind person can’t tell what you look like, but he or she may be able to recognize you by your voice. Blind people can also learn to read using a system called Braille. In the Braille system, raised bumps that a person can feel are used to stand for letters. A blind reader touches and runs her fingers over the dots and recognizes letters. Then, she thinks of the sounds the letters stand for and blends the sounds together to read. Like lip reading or using sign language, it takes lots of time and practice to learn how to read using Braille.


Chapter Eleven: Overcoming Disabilities, Part Two
People with disabilities face extra challenges in life. However, these disabilities don’t keep determined people from doing amazing things. This is a painting of the musician Ray Charles. Ray Charles went blind when he was seven years old. He couldn’t see, but there was nothing wrong with his ears. He loved music and decided to become a musician. He learned to sing and play the piano. Eventually, he became one of the most popular musicians of his day. Ray Charles won ten Grammy Awards and made millions of dollars as a singer. He did not let his disability hold him back.

This next image shows a girl named Helen Keller. Helen Keller lost both her sight and her hearing from a serious illness when she was just nineteen months old. She was deaf and blind for the rest of her life. As a young girl, Helen Keller could not hear or speak. She learned to communicate a few ideas by making gestures. When she wanted her mother, she would grab and pull her mother to her. When she wanted to be alone, she would push her mom away.


She could nod her head to say yes or shake it to say no. When she wanted toast, she would make a gesture as if she was spreading butter on bread. There were a few ideas that she could communicate. Yet there were many things she could not get across with gestures. As a child, she would often try to communicate and fail. Then, she would get angry and cry. Sometimes she would have terrible temper tantrums. She wanted, more than anything, to communicate with people. She was not able to do so.

Helen’s parents were worried about her. They did not know how to help her communicate. Since she was deaf and blind, she could not attend school. So, her parents searched and found a special teacher who came to live with them. The teacher’s name was Annie Sullivan. Annie Sullivan wanted to teach Helen to understand words, but how can you understand words if you can’t hear them?

Sullivan started by giving Helen a doll to hold. Then, she took Helen by the hand and traced the letters d-o-l-l on her palm. She did this over and over. After a while, Helen learned to write the letters d-o-l-l on a page. She did not know that she had written a word. She did not even know that words existed. But she felt proud that she could imitate what her teacher was doing.


Her teacher, Annie Sullivan, traced more words on Helen’s palm. She learned to spell pin, hat, cup, and a few other words. The real breakthrough happened when Annie tried to teach Helen the word water. Sullivan took Helen outside to a well. She placed one of Helen’s hands under the spout and spelled w-a-t-e-r on her other palm. Suddenly, something seemed to click in Helen’s head. She understood that w-a-t-e-r meant the “wonderful, cool something” that was flowing over her hand.

Helen soon learned more words. When she was eight, she went to a special school for the blind. Sullivan went with her. Later, she went to a school for the deaf. But she didn’t stop there. She went on to Radcliffe College, where she became the first deaf and blind person to receive a college degree.

Helen learned to speak, and she learned to read lips with her fingers. She learned to read, using Braille. She wrote books, including a biography of her own life, The Story of My Life. She was active in politics and fought for women to have the right to vote. Helen Keller lived a long and productive life. She died in 1968 at the age of 87. In 2003, the state of Alabama honored Helen Keller by putting an image of her on their state quarter. The quarter pays tribute to Helen’s courage in overcoming her disabilities and inspiring millions of people.


Chapter Twelve: The Skeletal System — Reader’s Theater Cast
Welcome to the Human Body Network. Today, we are visiting Mrs. Bones’ third-grade class as they learn about the skeletal system.

Mrs. Bones. Good morning, everyone. We have a special visitor today named Dr. Welbody. Some of you may remember her. She visited your classroom when you were in first grade.

Dr. Welbody. Hello! My name is Dr. Welbody. I visited your school a few years ago. We learned about some of the systems that keep your body working.

Everyone. Hello! Hello!

Dr. Welbody. Well, let’s begin. The skeletal system is made up of bones. There are more than 200 bones in your body. You kids don’t need to be able to name every bone in the body. But you should know the names of some of the most important bones. So let’s get started!

Student 1 (tapping her head). What is the name of the bone that makes up my head?

Dr. Welbody. Good question! Your skull is made up of more than one bone. Doctors call this set of bones the cranium.

Student 2. The cranium? That’s a funny name. How will I remember that name?


Dr. Welbody. Try this: The cranium protects your brain, right?

Student 3. I guess so.

Dr. Welbody. And the word cranium sounds like the word brain. The CRANium protects your BRAIN-ium!

Everyone (giggling). The CRAN-ium protects your BRAIN-ium.

Narrator. Dr. Welbody and Mrs. Bones are great teachers. The class is learning a lot today!

Dr. Welbody. That was easy!

Student 4 (tapping his chest). What about this bone right here in the middle of my chest? What is its name?

Dr. Welbody. The sternum. Say it with me — sternum.

Student 5. That’s a hard word to remember. Do you have a trick to help us?

Dr. Welbody. Try this poem: Be glad your sternum’s on the inside, That really is the best. For if it were on the outside, You’d have a bony chest!

Everyone (giggling). Say it again, say it again!


Dr. Welbody and students. Be glad your sternum’s on the inside, That really is the best. For if it were on the outside, You’d have a bony chest!

Narrator. I wish I were a third grader today!

Student 6. What about the bones in my legs? What are they called?

Dr. Welbody. The two bones in your lower leg are called the tibia and the fibula. The tibia is the larger of the two.

Student 7. I bet you have a trick for us to help us remember, don’t you?

Dr. Welbody (chuckling). Yes, I do! You see in your reader that one of the bones is larger than the other. Well, here goes — a fib is a little lie and the fibula is the little leg bone. How about that?

Everyone. We loved your visit! Hooray for Dr. Welbody’s tricks and for Mrs. Bones’ bones!

Narrator. Thanks for tuning into the Human Body Network today. We hope that you learned a lot about bones. Tune in again soon!


Appendix: Dr. Welbody’s Rhymes for the Human Body Systems
Everybody has a body, and that body is made of cells. Cells build tissues, organs, and systems to keep your body running well.
Without my hidden skeleton, I could not stand up tall. And so, “Hurray for bones,” I say, two hundred six in all!
I’m glad that I have muscles. They help me to have fun, to jump and kick a soccer ball, to smile and speak and run. I’m glad that I have muscles, and glad that you do, too. So our hearts can beat, and stomachs work, without having anything to do!
Without a brain, where would I be? I could not move or think or see. Or write my name or count to three. In fact, I just would not be me! Let’s not forget the important nerves in every part of my body that send the messages to my brain. So I can be carefree! We humans are really lucky, I am sure that you agree!


Chew and swallow, down it goes. First esophagus, next the stomach, where it slows. Squeeze and churn, along it flows, to the small and large intestines’ rows. It is clear without a question, that the mission is digestion!
By way of the kidneys, your blood passes through, cleaning out waste without ballyhoo. Skin and sweat glands help out, too, to make sure there are no toxins in you!
My heart is always working. It’s busy night and day. It’s pumping while I’m sleeping, and while I work and play. Let’s give a cheer for hearts now, for hearts, HIP, HIP, HOORAY!

Breathe in, breathe out, inhale, exhale. My lungs expand and contract. It truly is a wonder that respiration is as simple as that.

Glossary for “How Does Your Body Work?
Achilles — a hero of the Trojan War in Greek mythology; he could only be killed by a wound just above his heel.
Achilles tendon — the strong tendon joining the muscles in the calf of the leg to the bone of the heel.
Active — busy.
American Sign Language — a kind of sign language used in the United States and Canada.
Anvil — a small bone in the ear that looks like an anvil and vibrates when sound waves hit the eardrum.
Auditory nerve — the nerve that sends signals from your ears to your brain, about what you hear.
Automatically — done without thinking about it.

Blind — unable to see.
Braille — a system of raised bumps that blind people feel with their fingers and use to read and write.
Breakthrough — a sudden, important change that allows for progress.

Calcium — what your bones are made of.
Cartilage — a flexible tissue that cushions the joints where your bones meet.
Cast — a hard covering that holds a broken bone in place while it heals.
Cell body — the center of a cell.
Cell — the tiniest living part of the human body (cells).
Cerebellum — a part of the brain located under the cerebrum, divided into two halves; it helps with voluntary movement of muscle groups and balance.
Cerebral cortex — the “gray matter” of the cerebrum that processes sensory information and controls muscle function.
Cerebrum — the largest part of the brain, divided into two halves; it sits on top of the cerebellum and controls thoughts, emotions, and all the senses.
Challenge — a difficult task or problem that requires extra effort (challenges).
Cochlea — a fluid-filled coil in the inner ear that is lined with hairs that vibrate when sound waves hit the eardrum; the nerves connected to the hairs send messages to the brain that tell you what you are hearing.
Coil — spiral.
College degree — the official document given to someone who has successfully completed a set of classes at a college.
Concussion — brain injury.
Connective — linking.
Contact lens — a thin, plastic disc placed directly on the cornea of the eye to correct vision problems (contact lenses).
Cope — live with effectively.
Cornea — a thin, clear tissue that covers the iris, protects the eye from dirt and germs, and focuses light.
Courage — bravery.
Cranium — skull.
Cushion — to protect with something soft (cushioned, cushions).

Dairy — made with milk.
Deaf — unable to hear (deafness).
Decade — ten years (decades).
Dendrite — a path along which nerves send messages to the brain (dendrites).
Determined — reached a firm decision to do something.
Digest — to break down food in the stomach so that it can be used by your body (digesting).
Disability — something that prevents a person from moving easily or acting or thinking in a typical way (disabilities).

Ear canal — ear tube.
Eardrum — a thin membrane inside the ear that vibrates when sound hits it.
Eventually — after some time has passed.
Exist — to be real (existed).
Expand — to get bigger.

Farsighted — able to see things clearly if they are far away; things that are closer look blurry.
Fiber — it forms tissue.
Fibula — the small “outside bone” in the lower part of your leg.
Flexible — bendable.
Flinch — to draw back suddenly, which is an example of a reflex.
Fluid — liquid.
Frame — structure.

Gesture — a movement of a body part to communicate.
Gland — an organ in the body that makes natural chemicals (glands).
Grammy Awards — awards for achievement in the music industry.
Guide dog — a seeing eye dog (guide dogs).

Hammer — a small bone in the ear that looks like a hammer and vibrates when sound waves hit the eardrum.
Hemisphere — one half of a round object (hemispheres).
Hollow — empty inside.

Imitate — to copy.
Inner ear — the innermost part of the ear that contains the cochlea and auditory nerve.
Insert — to put in.
Involuntary — automatic; your heart is an example of an involuntary muscle.
Invulnerable — safe or protected; opposite of vulnerable.
Iris — eye color (irises).

Joint — a connection between two bones in your body (joints).

Laser beam — an intense beam of light that can be used for many things, including surgery and cutting things.
LASIK surgery — an operation during which the doctor uses a laser beam to change the shape of the cornea of the eye to help it focus light better.
Lens — the clear part at the front of the eye that focuses light on the retina (lenses).
Ligament — a tissue connecting bones to bones (ligaments).

Marrow — spongy inside.
Medulla — brain stem.
Membrane — a thin sheet or layer that covers something.
Middle ear — the part of the ear that is between the outer and inner ear; it has three small bones that vibrate when struck by sound waves, which then pass the vibrations to the inner ear.
Model — smaller copy.
Muscle — a tissue that makes it possible for your body to move (muscles).
Muscular system — your muscles.

Nearsighted — able to see things clearly if they are close by; things that are farther away look blurry.
Nervous system — your nerves.

Optic nerve — the nerve that sends messages from your eyes to your brain about what you see.
Optician — a person who examines eyes, makes glasses, and sells contact lenses.
Optometrist — a doctor who specializes in caring for eyes and treating vision problems.
Organ — a part of your body made of cells and tissues that performs a specific job (organs).
Outer ear — the part of the ear that is visible on the side of the head; its job is to catch sounds and guide them into the middle ear.
Overcoming — defeating or successfully dealing with.

Palm — the inside part of a hand between the base of the fingers and the wrist.
Paralyzed — unable to act, move, or feel a part or parts of the body.
Pelvis — hip bones.
PET scan — body or brain x-ray (PET scans).
Politics — the art or science of government; activities and discussions involving government.
Prescription — an order for medicine.
Pupil — eye center (pupils).

Realistic — real, accurate, or true.
Reflex — reaction (reflexes).
Retina — the lining at the back of the eye that is very sensitive to light; the nerves in the retina send messages to the brain.
Rods and cones — special cells that line the retina and send signals to the brain through the optic nerve.

Scapula — shoulder blade (scapulae).
Search — to look carefully and thoroughly for (searched).
Seemed to click — made sense or worked out.
Sensitive — responsive.
Shoulder blade — scapula; you have two of these triangle-shaped bones at the top of your back (shoulder blades).
Skeletal system — your bones.
Skull — head.
Spout — a pipe that liquid flows out of.
Sternum — breastbone.
Stirrup — a small bone in the ear that looks like a stirrup and vibrates when sound waves hit the eardrum.
Stomach — belly.

Temper tantrum — an angry, uncontrolled outburst by a child, or by someone acting childish (temper tantrums).
Tendon — a tissue connecting muscles to bones (tendons).
Tibia — shinbone.
Tissue — a group or layer of cells that work together as a part or organ in your body.
Tribute — something done to show honor or respect.
Trojan — a person born or living in the ancient city of Troy.

Vertebra — a small bone that is part of the spinal column or backbone (vertebrae).
Vibrate — to move back and forth rapidly (vibration, vibrations).
Vision — the sense of sight, the act of seeing.
Voluntary — on purpose, not by accident; opposite of involuntary; moving your hand to write with a pencil is an example of voluntary muscle action.
Vulnerable — weak or in danger.

Warrior — soldier.
Well — a deep hole dug in the ground to reach water.

X-ray — a powerful, invisible ray of light that can pass through objects to show the inside, such as the inside of the human body (x-rays).
Image subtitles.

Dr. Welbody presents a slide showing two views of a human skeleton. The skeletal system seen from the side and from the front. Human skull, or cranium. Human spinal column. RIBS, STERNUM SCAPULA. Front view of the rib cage with scapulae (in back). Human leg bones. TIBIA, FIBULA. Dr. Welbody plays Simon Says with students. Dr. Welbody points to the fibula. A view of bone marrow cells through a microscope. An x-ray image of a broken bone—do you see exactly where the bone is broken? The cast helps the boy’s broken arm heal. Can a skeleton chase you? Your body has about 650 muscles. Muscles help us run. You move the voluntary muscles in your legs to make your body run. A human stomach. Dr. Welbody points to a slide showing knee joints. Model of four vertebrae with cartilage. VERTEBRAE, CARTILAGE. Back view (left) and front view (right) of the right knee showing ligaments in red. The Achilles tendon. Achilles, the Greek warrior. Dr. Welbody points to a slide showing the nervous system. The nervous system with a signal traveling along the nerves to the brain. The stringy parts that lead away from the cell body are called dendrites. The doctor checks a boy’s reflexes, which is another way to check his nerves. Your brain, spinal cord, and nerves. BRAIN, NERVES, SPINAL CORD. These children have experienced change to their spinal cords, which impacts how they move. The human brain. The three main parts of the brain. CEREBRUM, MEDULLA, CEREBELLUM. The hemispheres of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The cerebrum of the brain. Cerebral cortex. Things that happen in each hemisphere of the cerebrum. RIGHT-BRAIN FUNCTIONS: ART AWARENESS, CREATIVITY, IMAGINATION, INTUITION, INSIGHT, HOLISTIC THOUGHT, MUSIC, AWARENESS, 3-D FORMS, LEFT-HAND CONTROL. LEFT-BRAIN FUNCTIONS: ANALYTIC THOUGHT, LOGIC, LANGUAGE, REASONING, SCIENCE AND MATH, WRITING, NUMBER SKILL, RIGHT-HAND CONTROL. Dr. Welbody introduces Dr. Kwan Si-Yu. The top picture shows a large pupil, which is letting more light in. The bottom picture shows a small pupil, which is letting less light in. The human eye. CORNEA, PUPIL, IRIS, OPTIC NERVE, LENS, RETINA. Your eyes see light reflected off objects. How your eye bends light when the cornea is shaped correctly. How your eye bends light when the cornea is not shaped correctly. How corrective lenses help your eye bend light correctly. A girl about to insert a contact lens into her eye. The LASIK procedure. Dr. Kwan Si-Yu introduces Dr. Kim Audit. Dr. Audit demonstrates vibration. Outer, middle, and inner ear. OUTER EAR, MIDDLE EAR, EAR CANAL, EARDRUM, INNER EAR. Parts of the ear. EAR CANAL, EARDRUM, STIRRUP, COCHLEA, HAMMER, ANVIL, AUDITORY NERVE. Dr. Audit explains how your ear works. Dr. Audit talks about sign language. Sign language for each letter of the alphabet. A blind man walks with a special cane. A guide dog helping a blind person get around. A blind person reading Braille. Ray Charles. Helen Keller as a child. Helen Keller with her teacher, Annie Sullivan. The Alabama state quarter. Dr. Welbody, Student 6, Student 1,  Student 7, Student 2 Everyone (the whole class), Student 3, Mrs. Bones, teacher, Student 4, Narrator, Student 5, Narrator.


Lesson 62 – Coxhead Academic Vocab-Builder

NEW WORDS: Ayumi, Beckham, Bret, Cain, Frankie, Gogh, Gwyn, Jett, Mets, Murphy, Opie, Ramon, Rhett, Scrooge, Sox, Trenda, Welch, academy, accommodate, accumulate, acquire, adjacent, administrate, advocate, affect, aggregate, albeit, allocate, ambiguous, amendment, append, appropriate, approximate, arbitrary, assess, attain, attribute, automate, bearcats, bias, birthplace, category, chlorine, clause, coasters, coincide, colleague, colts, comma, commodity, compatible, compile, component, comprise, concept, conclude, concurrent, confer, confidence, conform, congrats, consequent, consist, constitute, constrain, consult, consume, contemporary, contrast, coordinate, corporate, correspond, criteria, deaths, decline, defect, denote, deranged, deride, derive, devote, differentiate, dimension, diminish, dimming, dimwit, discrete, dispose, distort, diverse, domestic, duration, dynamic, emphasis, empirical, enable, enhance, equivalent, ethic, ethnic, evolve, exclude, exploit, export, external, facilitate, factor, ferrets, fessed, finite, formula, forthcoming, founded, framework, frenemies, fundamental, fuse, generate, group’s, hammock, heartburn, hierarchy, ideology, implicate, implicit, incentive, inching, incline, induce, inevitable, infer, inherent, initiate, integral, interact, internal, interpret, intrinsic, invest, invoke, isolate, leafs, leapfrog, legislate, levy, maximize, mechanism, mediate, mewling, migrate, minded, minimize, minimum, negate, nevertheless, notwithstanding, occupy, olds, overlap, panel, paradigm, parameter, perceive, plugged, politician, practitioner, predominant, priced, principle, product’s, project’s, promote, proportion, psychology, puke, qualitative, rates, ratio, refine, reinforce, reject, reluctance, resource, restore, restrict, retain, revenue, rioters, scenario, sector, session, simulate, sources, specify, sphere, spurs, squeaky, subdue, subordinate, successor, sufficient, suns, supplement, suspend, tariffs, technical, technique, temporary, tempts, terminate, theme, transform, transit, trendy, underlie, unify, valid, virtual, visual, vitamin, welfare, whereby, wyverns, zipper’s

My play will consist of 3 acts.

Levy a tax on e-cigs.

Open the fuse panel.

We’ll acquire their firm.

Its predominant scent is rose.

In principle, you’re right.

Please facilitate the meeting.

Let’s confer with Dan.

Conform to the rules.

Ignore that rule in this instance.

I wish he’d conclude his speech.

This visual makes your point.

She’ll attain fame.

They have a diverse work force.

The rioters wreaked havoc.

This parameter has a value of 5.

His goof-ups led to his eventual arrest.

This pill is for your benefit.

Their views will coincide.

I perceive that you’re tired.

They found a new chemical element!


Don’t deride me!

She’s a nurse-practitioner.

Don’t commit a crime.

Your offer is low, so I reject it.

You should invoke the 5th amendment.

Can Beckham play?

All Scrooge did was accumulate wealth.

I love roller coasters.

I’ll devote a week to a mission trip.

That’s a big proportion to eat.

Consult with your mom.

Sears is in steep decline.

They pay minimum wage.

Contrast his views with hers.

Sit for the duration of the flight.

She’s an internal medicine doc.

I bet they’ll terminate their marriage.

My hands are squeaky clean.

Retain 2 boxes, toss the rest.

Promote her to administrate this Division.

Go, Bearcats!


I love to lie in a hammock.

Which book will you select?

We’ve got to leapfrog their technology.

Send this note, concurrent with my speech.

Earth is a sphere.

Append this to the contract.

Death is inevitable.

What can you infer from this?

Approximate how many will come.

Murphy went home.

Will Congress legislate new gun laws?

This vitamin is a supplement.

You can derive this word from French.

Is Ayumi home?

Put emphasis on this word.

My lawyer will advocate for me.

This is a complex mechanism.

He’s got a strong work ethic.

Unify the team around this plan.

Make a deal whereby they think they got a win-win.

Go, Colts!


There’s too much chlorine in the pool.

Gwyn spoke, whereas Tom did not.

Kindness is her best attribute.

Did apes evolve into humans?

I predict that they’ll win.

Coordinate a call with them.

His bias is close-minded.

Ensure that she gets this note!

Factor in these new facts.

Eating that will induce me to puke.

The 2 games overlap.

This is a temporary fix.

It’s crucial to do this fast.

Assess our chances in the game.

Dispose of this trash.

Allocate a million bucks to this project.

Cain made an arbitrary choice.

The King’s domain stretched far and wide.

She’s inching towards me!

Specify which of these you want.

That cake tempts me!


I have empirical facts to prove this.

Bret heads the town’s Transit Authority.

Babs is in the adjacent room.

The boss chose Gaye as his successor.

Craig went to the Academy of Fine Arts.

Kay has an inherent fear of strangers.

Go, Mets!

Compile a list of our needs.

His paradigm is quite right-wing.

Get an external back-up computer drive.

We must constrain our spending.

Restrict Lee under house arrest.

Sue, your point is valid.

I’ll try to affect a Welch accent.

That ruler will exploit his people.

It’s not definite that Tim will win.

Subdue your anger!

Give me the aggregate number of deaths.

Oil is their prime natural resource.

Acknowledge when you get it.

His love for her is apparent.


Transfer Ted to the D.C. branch.

His ideology rubs me the wrong way.

Trenda is sick.

Subsequent to the game, let’s host a bash.

Rhett used to reside in Spain.

Half of these folks are on welfare.

I must refine my speech more.

Please restore power fast!

They moved their corporate HQ.

To say that would denote a lack of respect.

We had a great, albeit short trip.

Reinforce these 3 points with the team.

That’s a tough math formula.

Can the computer simulate the damage?

Go, Red Sox!

Pay the bulk of the debt.

I need features equivalent to my old phone.

We need to maximize profits.

You can’t suspend their right to protest.

Stop mewling!

They came to an implicit agreement.


This commodity is priced too high.

I equate his beliefs with his challenging childhood.

This speech should negate their fears.

We’re short on component parts.

I won’t agree to that clause.

I’ve tried virtual reality games.

A neutral party must mediate our fight.

This fits best with that category.

That young couple seems compatible.

That crook is deranged.

Let’s converse more about your request.

I hear you; nonetheless, I don’t agree.

She’s high up in their company hierarchy.

These tariffs hurt our export products.

Those two are frenemies.

That’s a good framework for explaining it.

She set a new fashion trend.

Minimize this product’s defect rates.

We can accommodate for your special needs.

He’s an integral part of our team.

Where’s your birthplace?


You’ve done an adequate job here.

Don’t diminish my confidence in you!

We’ll be leaving a month hence.

That’s just one dimension of this issue.

He was a contemporary of Van Gogh.

Go, Suns!

It’s best to utilize this tool.

There’s a fundamental problem here.

That will implicate Rex in the crime!

They have pet ferrets!

Isolate this patient on the third floor.

I hate beets; nevertheless, I’ll eat them to be polite.

Where’s Ramon?

My subordinate will lead the session.

Liv wants to be a bond trader.

Our Board will comprise of 8 folks.

That meal gave me heartburn.

It will transform into a butterfly.

This product will generate lots of cash.

How should we interpret these facts?

Exclude Jett from today’s practice.

I assure you, I’m right!


That’s Opie, a work colleague.

Don’t distort the facts!

Is domestic violence rising?

That’s NOT appropriate to wear!

Your actions don’t correspond with your words.

What’s the least risky scenario?

They’ve had no technical advances.

That concept makes no sense.

10- to 13-year olds will constitute our team.

Confirm our dinner date.

I hate to interact with him.

Show me your dance technique.

Go, Spurs!

I said, “yes,” with some reluctance.

That film would depress me.

Let’s meet at the forthcoming trade show.

This is qualitative research with no data.

What a steep incline!

What’s this group’s ethnic make-up?

I need wine to complement my meal.

He’ll consume lots of sweets.

Our revenue plan is on plan.


The discrete parts are easy to assemble.

Sales dropped consequent to their price increase.

Mom’s dimming the lights.

Enjoy the wine for its intrinsic tastes.

Initiate an investigation.

You’ve spent sufficient time on this.

He fessed up to his crime.

This sauce will enhance your fish.

Automate that assembly line.

This sector of the economy is strong.

Grow up, Frankie!

Here’s what may underlie his thoughts.

My zipper’s stuck.

The Sales Force likes its incentive plan.

Man’s time on Earth is finite.

I can’t differentiate between those twins!

Go, Maple Leafs!

Here are the criteria to get on the team.

We must invest in that software.

This will enable you to work from home.

What’s the main theme of the book?

Scope out the project’s costs.


The politician gave an ambiguous answer.

Notwithstanding having a good lawyer, he was found guilty.

I plugged up the leak.

You must cite your sources in your paper.

He’s such a dimwit.

The student-teacher ratio is 25-to-1.

Has mom gone into labor yet?

How do you occupy your weekend time?

Amend the contract with this end-date.

Those are trendy shoes.

There’s a good dynamic between the actors.

Congrats on your good grades.

China wants to expand its power.

There’s a small fee to join.

My aunt founded her own firm.

I need a cup of tea to function when I get up.

Insert a comma here.

Go, Wyverns!

Birds migrate south in the winter.

She got a psychology degree at school.

Give me insight into your thoughts.

I got sent to the principal!

Core Knowledge (R) Independent Reading 

(Review guidelines for publishing Core Knowledge (R) materials at the bottom of this page-view. This lesson is a “READ-ALOUD” Core Knowledge (R) passage that has been rewritten to be at a lower-grade independent reading level complexity than the original, largely by shortening and simplifying sentence structures while maintaining the richness of the text content.)

Taking Care Of The Earth

Lesson 63 – Part One

NEW WORDS: accessible, acquaintance, actualized, alluring, astounded, befouled, belowground, billowy, boundless, bulldozers, burying, cafeteria, cognizance, collectors, compromised, conjecture, conjunction, conserve, contributors, costly, decompose, decomposes, decomposing, dematerialize, dependence, depiction, descry, despond, diminutive, discard, disintegrate, dispense, doubtlessly, dreck, dumpster, edify, electrifying, emphasizing, enveloped, epochs, exigent, exterior, feasible, gases, grapple, healthful, healthier, humankind, hypothesizing, inconceivable, inhaling, intentionally, intimation, junkyard, landfill, landfills, mainstay, metropolises, minatory, mindfully, niveous, nurture, offscourings, oodles, outdoor, overspread, perspicacious, petroleum, photogenic, precarious, predominately, preferable, preserving, proposition, punctuate, reasoned, regarding, reiterate, reproachable, resources, resplendently, retrogrades, school’s, sculch, scultch, sickly, slurping, sparged, stinky, stow, stupendous, thoroughfares, thriving, transmute, unaccommodating, unveiling, upbraid, utilizing, waft, wastebasket, wasteyard

Chapter One: Making Your Acquaintance With the Earth
Hi, kids. It’s me, Earth. Some people call me the world. Some call me the planet. And some even call me Mother Earth. But you can just call me “Good Old Earth.”

This is what I look like from outer space. That’s from somewhere beyond our friend the moon. From outer space, I guess I look pretty diminutive. You can descry that I am mostly blue. That’s because I’m mostly overspread with water. But you can also see lots of green and brown. Those are the colors of the land where people live. Of course, I am also enveloped by a nice blanket of air. You can’t see the air. But you can see the white clouds that waft around in it.

I’ve been here for what seems like boundless epochs. I’ve taken cognizance of many things. I just want to tell you that I am truly astounded by humankind. And I’m glad that you’re here with me. You do so many electrifying things.

I like your farms and your nice little towns. I like the great big cities you’ve built. They’re inconceivable! I don’t even mind the thoroughfares that you’ve built all over me. I like to feel your boats floating on my oceans, seas, and lakes. And your airplanes kind of tickle a little as they zoom through my skies.


Most of all, I like you kids. I like to feel your little feet running around. I like to hear you laughing. And I especially hope that you enjoy and appreciate all the beautiful and stupendous places on my surface. Let’s take a look at some of these places together.

People live on land. But you aren’t the only living things that are dependent on, or need, the land. Animals, plants, and people all need to share the land with each other.

The flowers and grasses add such beauty to my exterior. Of course, the flowers, trees, and grasses aren’t there just to be pretty. They’re important for all of the creatures that live here. That’s true of the squirrels and birds that live in the trees. That’s true of the bees that buzz around, slurping nectar from the flowers. That’s true of the animals that eat the grass.

It’s the same with rivers and other bodies of water, such as lakes and streams. They’re nice to look at. They’re nice to swim around in, or to paddle down in your canoe. But they’re also home to many creatures. These range from fish, to snakes and turtles, to snails. And their waters are important in many ways for you people, too.


Here is a photo of the beautiful sky. On this day, the sun is shining resplendently, and a few billowy, niveous clouds are floating through the air. Every time you look up in the sky from now on, I want you to think of the air that’s there. You’ll want to listen very mindfully. I’ll tell you about preserving clean air and clean skies. After all, the air is what you are inhaling every few seconds, every single day.

People are the most perspicacious creatures on Earth. You’re the ones who built grand metropolises. You’re the ones who invented cars and computers. You make medicines for people and animals. You have schools and airplanes and many other important things.

You people are truly amazing. You can do many things that no other living creature here on Earth can do. That gives you extra responsibility. Because you’re the smartest, all living things have dependence on you to nurture me. You have to share the Earth. So, you must take care of the Earth. You’re all in it together.


I want people to truly enjoy living here. Each morning when you wake up and see the sunrise, I hope that you will say this. “Great! It’s the start of another wonderful day on beautiful Earth!” I want to make sure that happens. So, I need to teach you about something I like to call “Taking Care of the Earth.” I really need your help. You must make sure that the air, water, and land stay clean. That way, you and all other things living here can be safe, healthful, and self-actualized. And you kids can really do a lot to help out. (And you can help to make sure that all the grown-ups do their part, too). So, I hope that you’ll listen intentionally over the next couple of weeks. I have a lot of important things to share with you.


Chapter Two: Garbage
Hi, Good Old Earth here again. I thought I’d start by unveiling a different view of me. This is what I look like from the moon. Aren’t I photogenic? I look really small from way up there. It’s hard to conjecture that all of you people fit on Earth. And that’s along with your cities, farms, schools, stores, cars, and houses! But you do!

Today, I’m going to talk to you about an exigent matter. It’s a topic that we all have to grapple with. We’re going to learn about garbage. That’s right, stinky old, ugly old garbage! Some people also call it trash, waste, junk, or rubbish. Others call it refuse, sculch (or scultch), dreck, or offscourings. Whatever you call it, it’s all the same. It’s stuff that you’ve used and don’t need anymore. Trash is probably not something you think about a lot. But you deal with it every day, and so do I. There’s an awful lot of trash on me. And, not to upbraid you to make you feel reproachable, but all of that trash comes from people.


Envision that you go to a birthday party. They give you some cake and ice cream. And let’s say that they serve it all on little paper plates. And they give you a paper napkin and a plastic spoon to eat with. You gobble up all the food. And then what do you do with the plate, napkin, and spoon? Do you stow them under the sofa and forget about them? Do you open up the window and discard them into the backyard? I hope not!

Instead, you put the napkin, plate, and spoon in the trash can. A trash can is sometimes called a garbage can or a wastebasket. Of course, larger ones, like at a business like a restaurant, are called dumpsters. Whatever you call it, it’s the place where you dispense with your trash.

What is this man doing? He’s taking out the trash. I’m hypothesizing that this trash can is in his kitchen. Where else do you have trash cans in your house? Some people have one in every room. Lots of people keep one in the bathroom. Is there one in your classroom? How about your school’s cafeteria? Which one is bigger?

So, why is this man taking out the trash? Because the trash bag is full. But then what does he do with it? He’ll probably take it outside to a bigger trash can. Or maybe he’ll take it to a dumpster.


So, people have thrown their trash bags into a dumpster or an outdoor trash can. Then, they might think, “Out of sight, out of mind.” That means they stop thinking about the trash. That’s because they can’t see it anymore. But I don’t stop thinking about it, and I hope that you won’t either.

About once a week, garbage collectors come along in a big garbage truck. They pick up the trash can or dumpster. They dump its contents into the back of the truck. And then what do they do? Do they park the truck on the edge of town and leave it there? Do they launch the truck into outer space? Do they call up a magician and ask him to come and make the trash dematerialize?

In many places, they take it to the nearest landfill. Some people call the landfill a dump (or a junkyard, or a wasteyard). That’s because that’s what you do. You dump your trash there. However, I, Good Old Earth, view the term “landfill” as preferable. That’s emphasizing to people that all they’re doing is burying their trash inside of me.

This might look like a lot of trash. But trust me when I say that what you see in this picture is just a teeny, tiny bit of trash. That’s if you compare it to all the trash that people around the world make every single day!


At some point, the piles of trash in the landfill are big enough. Then, bulldozers move in and push dirt on top of the trash.

Why bury the trash? It goes back to that idea of “out of sight, out of mind.” If the trash is underground, people don’t have to see it, think about it, or smell it. Your town or neighborhood is a much safer, healthier place to live in, because all that garbage is buried underground away from where you live and play. Trust me, though. Just because the garbage is buried doesn’t mean it’s gone. It’s there for a long, long time.

After it’s buried, some of the garbage starts to rot, or “decompose.” That means that the trash breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces. It becomes part of the soil belowground.

Trash that was food usually decomposes pretty quickly. The paper plate from the birthday party will decompose, too. But it will take longer than food. It may take several years for the paper plate to decompose. What about the plastic spoon? Unfortunately, plastic doesn’t disintegrate like food and paper. So, that spoon may lie around for hundreds or even thousands of years. But after a long enough period, it, too, retrogrades and becomes part of the Earth again.


Every landfill gets filled up eventually. Then, a new landfill is needed so that people can dump their trash. This picture shows an old landfill that’s been closed. Most of the garbage is buried. So, it’s slowly decomposing underground.

As you can see, plants can start to grow on the land again. And some animals may even move back in and make their homes there. But landfills can be dangerous. So much garbage underground means that there could be hazardous gases and chemicals in the area. The minatory gases and chemicals go back into the soil and air. They can even get into the water supply underground! This hurts the living things that live on Earth, breathe the air, and drink the water. Using this land again is quite costly. And it requires a lot of hard work and time. In most cases, land like this will remain a precarious place for many, many years to come. The garbage you drop in the trash can today is out of sight. But it shouldn’t be out of mind.


Chapter Three: Natural Resources
Earth here again. I always like to start by showing you a picture of me. That’s just to remind you how beautiful, amazing, and magnificent I am! Everything that people need in order to live thriving, healthy lives is accessible right here on Earth.

What continents can you see in this picture? You can see Europe, Africa, and a little bit of Asia. You can always spot Europe because of the shape of Italy. That’s the country that looks like a boot.

See the big brown area at the bottom of the picture? That’s North Africa. It is almost completely covered by the Sahara Desert. That’s the biggest desert in the world. And it’s one of the driest, hottest places on Earth.

You won’t find too many people living in the Sahara Desert. But that doesn’t mean that nobody lives there. It is feasible to live in the desert. But there are very few natural resources, like water, in the desert. It’s quite an unaccommodating place. That makes it very difficult for people to live there.


Let’s talk a bit more about natural resources for a minute. Natural resources are things that you can find in nature. They can be outside, underground, underwater, or even in the sky. Natural resources are not made by people. Natural resources are part of me, Good Old Earth.

There are two natural resources in this picture. Do you have a proposition for what they are? Here’s an intimation to help you out. One is wet. The other is wood. Water and trees are two examples of natural resources that are very important and valuable to people.

As I just said, one natural resource is water. Of course, one way we use water is to drink it just as it is. Other things we drink, such as juice, soda, and tea also contain water. In what other ways is water a resource? We use water for baths and washing dishes. We use it for brushing our teeth, cooking, and watering the garden where we grow food. The list goes on and on.

Trees are natural resources, too. This depiction shows just a few things that come from, or are made out of, trees. What else is made from trees? Since trees are predominately wood, we use that resource to make all sorts of things. Wood is used for houses, furniture, pencils, baseball bats, and oodles of other uses.


Paper is also made from trees. Everything made out of paper comes from trees. That includes your notebook, napkins, and cereal boxes. It includes cardboard boxes and the posters on the wall in your classroom.

This is an alluring picture of trees. But I actually wanted to punctuate something else. Look at the blue sky above the trees. Trees are also important because of their conjunction with another natural resource in the sky. That’s our air. You really can’t see air. But it’s all around you and everything else on Earth.

Did you know that trees are big contributors towards keeping the air clean and fresh for you to breathe? Amazing, right? All plants help to clean the air. But trees are the biggest and best air-cleaners. They take in compromised air and put out nice, fresh oxygen. Your body needs oxygen to breathe in, in order to stay alive. The more trees there are, the cleaner the air will be. If the air is too befouled, though, even the trees will become sickly.

There are other important natural resources, too. I am going to zip through these pretty quickly. That’s just to give you an idea of the kinds of natural resources you can find sparged about, on, or inside the Earth. But don’t despond. I’m going to tell you more about them over the next few days.


This picture was taken on a farm. What do you see? You can call it dirt, if you want. But farmers call it soil. Soil is a natural resource. It’s where farmers plant their crops. Soil is made up partly of the decayed or rotten parts of dead plants and creatures. Worms help to turn the dead things into new soil. It can take about one thousand years to make one inch of good soil. Without soil, you wouldn’t have plants or vegetables!

Here is a school of fish. Fish are important natural resources, too. Why? Because some people and animals eat them. In fact, regarding what some animals eat, fish is their mainstay!

Do you know what these two natural resources are? The one on the left is called coal. The one on the right is oil. Coal and oil are natural resources that come from inside the Earth. Coal and oil can be used to make energy, electricity, or petroleum to make cars run.

So, now you know what natural resources are! And let me reiterate this. You people are doubtlessly clever. That’s because you’ve reasoned out how to transmute all of these natural resources into so many things that you need. You do all kinds of things utilizing water, trees, air, and the soil on land.

Soon, I’ll edify you about how to conserve these natural resources. That’s a way to help take care of the Earth. I’ll also teach you that using some natural resources too much can actually hurt the Earth. And none of us want that, right?

Core Knowledge (R) Independent Reading 

(Review guidelines for publishing Core Knowledge (R) materials at the bottom of this page-view. This lesson is a “READ-ALOUD” Core Knowledge (R) passage that has been rewritten to be at a lower-grade independent reading level complexity than the original, largely by shortening and simplifying sentence structures while maintaining the richness of the text content.)

Taking Care Of The Earth

Lesson 64 – Part Two

NEW WORDS: Jamie, Jamie’s, actuality, affirming, agglomerated, aggregated, allure, aluminum, answerable, beneficial, benevolent, bulletin, burdening, candescent, cherish, chide, commix, compost, composted, composting, comrade, concede, cucumber, dispenser, divulge, effectual, eggshells, eliminator, enlarging, ensues, entreated, excavated, expeditiously, extraordinarily, fortuitously, generated, gratified, haled, heedful, hodgepodge, inhumed, interfuse, lecturing, luscious, mined, moisture, morphs, nisus, noticing, payoffs, peelings, perceptive, pitches, pitchy, plastics, potted, recommence, recyclable, recyclables, recycle, recycled, recyclers, recycling, reducing, reengineered, reflecting, remolded, restroom, reusable, reuse, reused, reusing, revisiting, rewards, robustly, salutary, sanitized, shovelful, stockpile, subdivided, subsequently, superheated, surmise, syrupy, transferred

Chapter Four: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
So, kids, how much trash does the Earth have to deal with each year? Let me ask that another way. How much trash do the people on Earth generate each year? Well, I’m not here to chide you or to try to make you feel bad. But let’s just say that people generate an extraordinarily large amount of trash!

People are really the only creatures on the planet who generate any trash. You won’t see a bear or a deer putting trash in a trash can. You won’t see a monkey in the jungle using a paper napkin to wipe her face. And you probably won’t see dogs and cats drinking their water out of plastic bottles. People make trash. So, they’re the ones who are answerable for taking care of it.

Every year, people in the U.S. generate billions of bags full of trash. Then there are all kinds of other trash that doesn’t fit in bags. These are things like old refrigerators and broken furniture. Imagine how much trash is generated all over the world!

Where does all that trash end up? Can you remember the name of the place in this picture? It’s a landfill. There is an incredible amount of trash buried in landfills. But you can all help.


Wouldn’t it be nice if we could keep as much land as possible clean and green. Can you think of ways that you can cut back on the amount of trash that you throw away?

Well, I’m about to teach you three important words. Please pay close attention. Try to put some of my words into action. Then, you can really help to make an important difference in the world.

Those three words are “reduce,” “reuse,” and “recycle.” Say them a few times.

When you reduce the amount you use of something, you use less of it. What do you see in this picture? On the left is a roll of paper towels. On the right is a paper towel dispenser. It’s likely like the one that you might have in the restroom at your school. Why do you think I am showing you these pictures? What does this have to do with the word reduce?

Let’s say you wash your hands in the restroom. Instead of grabbing a huge hunk of paper towels, try using just one.

Reducing the number of paper towels that you use is beneficial. You can do two very important things. First, you’ll reduce the number of trees that get cut down to make paper towels. That’s a really good thing! Second, you’ll reduce the amount of trash that goes to a landfill.


So, remember this when you’re using paper towels, toilet paper, or any other kind of paper. Reduce! Reduce! Reduce! Don’t use more than you really need.

What does it mean to reuse something? It means that you use it again.

If you try, you can probably think of lots of ways to reuse paper. Do you like to draw? Maybe you’re about to ball up a piece of used paper and throw it away. First, flip it over. See if there’s anything on the back.

If it’s blank, draw a picture on the other side. Then, take it home. Hang it up on the refrigerator or bulletin board. Trust me, it will look great. And no one will ever know or care that there is something on the other side.

Reducing and reusing are two important ways to make sure that you don’t send too much trash off to the landfill. But the very best way is by recycling.

This is the recycling symbol. The arrows in this symbol remind you that many things can, in actuality, be made into other things.


Recycling is sort of like reusing. When you recycle something, however, it often gets made into something completely different. For example, your plastic juice bottle can be recycled. It can be made into something else that is plastic. All the plastic that’s aggregated in recycling bins is taken to factories. There, it’s melted down into liquid plastic. It’s then made into something else. So, think about a plastic bottle that you put in the recycling bin. It might end up as part of a new plastic toy.

Now you know what it looks like. So, you might start noticing the recycling symbol in more places. Often, you’ll see these three arrows on bins like this one. So, you’ll know to put recyclable materials in it. A recycling bin is kind of like a trash can. But the things that you put in here won’t be transferred to a landfill. They will be reengineered into other things. Be sure to empty containers. And rinse them, if possible, before putting them into a recycling bin.


Here is a picture of different things that most people use almost every day. All of these things can be recycled. Newspapers, mail, and cardboard boxes are all paper products. All of them come from trees. All of them can be recycled instead of thrown into the trash can. What else is recyclable? Examples are glass bottles and jars, aluminum soda cans, metal soup cans, and plastic bottles.

What’s more, all of these things are made from natural resources. This means that the more you recycle, the more natural resources you conserve.

You might be reflecting upon this. Why does all that trash end up in landfills if most of it can be reused or recycled? That’s a perceptive question to ask. It’s one that you’ll learn about later. For now, I just want you to make sure that you remember those three important ‘R’ words. Reduce! Reuse! Recycle! Say them again! And do your part to become a trash eliminator!


Chapter Five: Recycle! Recycle! Recycle!
I entreated an artist to make a picture. I had him put these green recycling arrows on top of me. I hope that will help you remember this. Recycling is very salutary for good old Earth. Recycling is SO important. That’s why I’m revisiting with you to divulge more information to you about it. I’m affirming that you fully understand something very important. You are doing a good deed when you recycle something. The very first step in the recycling process is this. You won’t throw recyclable materials away in an ordinary trash can. You’ll put these things aside. Then, you’ll save them in another container, like a recycling receptacle.

Let’s say you’ve saved a lot of things to be recycled. They then need to be brought to a place called a recycling center. Sometimes people bring their own recyclables directly to the center. In this picture you can see a place with several large receptacles of different colors. People can bring all their recyclable materials here. But everything has to go in the right place. Glass goes in one bin. Cans go in another. Paper goes in another, and so on.


In some places, though, people do not have to go to the recycling center themselves. Instead, they can set out their recycling bins by the side of the road. This is just like they set out their garbage cans. A special truck comes by to empty the bins. They’ll take the recyclables to the recycling center.

I don’t know about you, but I think recycling is interesting. Here’s a colorful recycling picture. Can you guess what’s being recycled in this picture?

This is a picture of plastic bottle tops! All of these bottle tops were agglomerated at a recycling center. Then they were taken to a plastics recycling factory. There, they were pressed together in a big colorful hodgepodge. Subsequently, these bottle tops will be melted down into a liquid. Then, they can be remolded. They’ll be turned into something new made of plastic.

Look around your classroom. See if you can spot something made of plastic. I bet you can! Maybe it’s made from recycled plastic. Or, maybe it’s something you can recycle when you’re done using it. Maybe it can be made into something else.


What’s in this picture? Here are some cans made out of metal. This metal is called aluminum. Maybe you have had drinks that come in cans like these. What happens if you throw a can away into a trash can? It will be sent off to a landfill. It will take at least five hundred years for that aluminum can to break down and decompose! But what if you put the same can in a recycling bin, instead? The aluminum metal can be reused. The cans don’t have to be inhumed in a landfill.

Let’s take a closer look at how cans are recycled. This diagram shows what happens when you recycle an aluminum can. Aluminum is a natural resource. It’s mined and excavated from the Earth. From there, it goes to a factory. There, the raw aluminum is made into metal cans. They can then be filled with things, such as soda. After you buy a can of soda and drink it, you are left with an old, used can. You can throw the can in the garbage. But then it will end up in a landfill. A more responsible solution is to put the empty can into a recycling bin.


These cans have already been subdivided and sanitized at a recycling center. They’re now at a special recycling factory for aluminum. Workers at the recycling factory crush the cans. Then they melt them down in a big cooker with lots of other cans. Maybe they’ll make a new can. The cycle will begin all over again. The can gets filled with something to eat or drink. Someone uses the can. Then they put it in a recycling bin. The can is brought to a recycling center. It finally ends up at a factory. And so on, again and again.

What are these bottles made of? These bottles are made of glass. If you tossed bottles like these in the trash, they’d be haled away to a landfill. Some kinds of glass take about three thousand years to decompose. That’s a long time! Fortuitously, many glass items can be recycled instead.

At the glass recycling factory, the glass is crushed into little pieces. Crushed glass is then put into a very hot furnace. It’s melted into a super-hot, candescent liquid. With enough heat, glass melts just like ice melts.


Here’s a little piece of glass that has been superheated. It’s just about to melt and turn to liquid. Now imagine a big pot full of little bits of glass like this. The bits will all eventually melt together into a thick, hot, syrupy liquid. That’s what you would find at a glass recycling factory.

This picture shows the inside of a bottle-making factory. These are freshly made bottles. They are so hot that you dare not touch them! But they’ll be cool and hard again soon.

Recycling really isn’t hard to do. But I’ll concede that it does require a little bit of extra nisus. You might look at something and ask this. “Should I throw it in the garbage can? Should I put it in the recycling bin? Asking these questions doesn’t always make it to the top of our to-do lists. But it really is worth the time. It’s a good way to help take care of good old Earth!

Be sure to ask yourself this the next time you use a bottle, a can, or anything else. Is this recyclable? Can I conserve natural resources by making it into something useful again?


Chapter Six: Composting
Earth here. Once again, an artist comrade of mine is helping me. This is to help teach you a key lesson. She drew a picture of me. It shows me covered with all kinds of plants and veggies. Why? This will remind you of something important. You can get everything you need in order to thrive and survive from me, Good Old Earth.

You don’t have to live on a farm to do this. You can still make a little vegetable garden. You can grow a few potted plants. You can grow flowers, vegetables, or both. You know that veggies are good for your body. There’s nothing healthier than veggies that you grow in your own garden. Plus, gardens are good for the Earth. They provide food for bees and other creatures. Remember when we talked about natural resources and trees? We talked about how trees take in the dirty air. Then they put out fresh, clean air afterward. Gardens also help keep the air a little purer. Plus, they make the Earth a little prettier.

Today I’m lecturing about a special kind of recycling. It’s good for you. It’s good for your garden. And it’s good for the Earth. Once again, my artist friend has made some pictures. They’ll go along with the story I’m about to tell.


Meet the Smiths. The Smiths fixed a dinner of spaghetti, bread, and salad. When dinner’s over, it will be time to clean up. They made a lot of spaghetti and salad. So, they’ll have some leftovers. Mrs. Smith will put these leftovers in reusable containers. She’ll store them in the refrigerator. They’ll be good for lunch or a nosh the next day.

But some of the leftovers can’t be eaten. What will the Smiths do with them? They have a clean-up plan that’s benevolent to the Earth. And it’s good for their garden!

It’s Mr. Smith’s job to clear the table. He puts the trash into the trash can. But he scrapes bits of spaghetti, tomato sauce, and salad into a small pail.

Then the youngest Smith child, Jamie, pitches in. He adds vegetable scraps left over from making the salad. This could be carrot and cucumber peelings, celery leaves, and loose pieces of lettuce. Jamie could throw these in the trash. But instead, he puts them in the pail. This leftover food won’t end up in a landfill. But do you have any idea what will happen to it?

Jamie’s brother, Chris, takes the container outside. He dumps it into a large bin. What’s going on here? Is Chris making leftover soup outside? Do the Smiths love their leftover food scraps so much that they keep a stockpile of it in their backyard?


Well, the answer is yes. The Smiths do cherish their leftover food leavings. You see, the Smiths know to put food scraps in a bin to make “compost.” This rewards them in at least two ways. First, they won’t have to send as much garbage to the landfill. That’s something they can feel gratified about. By “composting,” they’re being friendly to the Earth. And, they’re not burdening the planet with more trash. Second, they get huge payoffs from enlarging their compost pile and taking good care of it. They’ll end up with a pile of soil full of nutrients for their garden.

The soil that comes from composting is called compost. It’s beneficial for plants. Putting compost on plants is like feeding them super-vitamins. The compost is full of nutrients. This helps to make the plants grow more robustly and healthier.

The Smiths are heedful to add only materials that make effectual compost. They don’t add meats or oily foods like butter. These kinds of foods can make the compost smell bad. And it can allure rodents and other wild animals.

What food items are good for composting? Rotten fruits and vegetables are good. Even leftover Halloween jack-o’-lanterns are good. Eggshells and coffee grounds are good for composting. The Smiths also add leaves and grass clippings. They also mix other stuff from the yard with the leftover foods.


Every week or so, the Smiths commix the compost. They use a rake or pitchfork to stir it. When it’s dry out, they water the pile with a garden hose. Then the sun begins to shine. The pile heats up. Heat and moisture make the materials in the compost bin break down faster. Some people interfuse worms with their compost bins. They eat the old food. That turns it into garden soil even more expeditiously. You see, worms are nature’s own recyclers! After a few weeks, the compost morphs. The food in the bin won’t look like food any more. It will look like nice, rich, pitchy soil.

The compost becomes ready. Mrs. Smith scoops a shovelful from the bin. She puts the compost around a new tomato plant that she’s planted. The roots of the tomato plant begin to take in water and food from the composted soil. Soon the plant will grow strong and healthy. That’s thanks, in part, to the nutrients from the compost.

A couple of months later, the tomato plant is big and healthy. It’s full of luscious red tomatoes. Jamie helps his mom pick some of the tomatoes on the plant. And what do you surmise ensues next?

Well, the Smiths use the tomatoes to make a salad. And what do you conjecture they do with the leftovers from that salad? They toss them in the compost pile, of course. So, the process can recommence all over again.

Core Knowledge (R) Independent Reading 

(Review guidelines for publishing Core Knowledge (R) materials at the bottom of this page-view. This lesson is a “READ-ALOUD” Core Knowledge (R) passage that has been rewritten to be at a lower-grade independent reading level complexity than the original, largely by shortening and simplifying sentence structures while maintaining the richness of the text content.)

Taking Care Of The Earth

Lesson 65 – Part Three 

NEW WORDS: aback, abhor, adjudged, ameliorated, appliance, assiduous, bountiful, broadened, brownish, bulbs, businesses, conceptions, conditioners, contributions, coterie, coughing, curtail, damming, defiled, deliberated, demonstrated, determining, detestable, detrimental, developing, displaying, drainpipe, droplet, droplets, electrical, engenders, environs, evacuated, evaporate, exemplify, exhort, fish’s, flossy, foregathers, forgathers, fountainheads, gazillion, gleaning, global, grime, hovers, influences, infused, intention, lallygag, lessen, littered, littery, maculate, mankind’s, mixing, mopping, mowers, nubilous, originating, outlets, paramount, percentage, permeates, photographed, pollutants, polluted, presuppose, producer, promisingly, proponent, purl, repose, reservoir, reservoirs, sickened, skyline, smoggy, spawn, surf, switches, tailpipe, taint, televisions, thrusts, trout’s, uglify, undesirable, unpotable, vapor, vermin, wastewater

Chapter Seven: Pollution
Hi, kids. Good Old Earth here again. I want to start by displaying a little art. This picture reminds us how important it is to take care of the Earth.

What do you think the artist is trying to exemplify to people? Do the three hands remind you of anything that I’ve told you about before?

Now do you remember? That’s the recycling symbol. It reminds you to recycle trash instead of throwing it away. This artist has taken a contrastive approach. The use of hands shows that people hold Earth in their hands. It’s your responsibility to take care of me.

What do you notice about these two pictures? They were both photographed at the beach. They’re full of sun and sand and surf. But which beach would you rather visit? The trash you see in this picture is called “litter.” Litter is trash that was not put in the right place. It was left on the ground or in the water. It should have been put in the trash can or recycling bin.


What about this picture? It looks like it was taken in a park. There is nice, green grass. There are woods in the background. Does this look like a fun place to play? Not in such a littery place!

Litter is more than just ugly. It can also be detrimental to the health of animals, plants, and anything else that needs to live on land or in the water. Certain types of litter can even be downright virulent. Think of things like empty paint or oil cans. They can leave toxic, or poisonous, chemicals in the ground, water, and air. What else do areas with a lot of litter do? They tend to attract rats and other undesirable vermin that like to eat trash. Lots of these animals will be sickened from eating the litter.

There’s a word for things that make parts of the Earth dirty and hazardous. This word is “pollution.” Litter is a type of pollution. In this picture, you see litter that has collected in a river. Now this litter has become water pollution. Not only does litter uglify our environs. It can hurt the plants, fish, and other creatures that live in and around the water. It can also make the water unpotable for people to drink.


I abhor seeing all this trash in the water. But even worse, I see lots of plastic and glass bottles. They can be recycled. But someone has to go out in a boat and collect all this litter. It would be better if it hadn’t been tossed there in the first place.

I showed you some land and water pollution. This picture shows the effects of another kind of pollution. Can you guess what this type of pollution is called?

It’s “air pollution.” This picture was taken during the daytime in a big U.S. city. This city is covered in smog. That’s heavy air pollution. It sometimes gets so bad that it hovers, or hangs around like a blanket, over the entire city. Much of the smog you see here is caused by the exhaust from cars.

Two of the paramount fountainheads of air pollution are cars and factories. Look at all that smoke in the air. What do you think will happen to all that pollution? Some of it will settle for a while in the skies around the factory to form smog. But most of it will be picked up by the wind. It will be carried to the skies over other places. Some of it will also be carried way up into the atmosphere. It may float up to where the airplanes fly. It can cause problems up there, too.


I’ll tell you more about air pollution soon. But I just wanted to show you how detestable it can be.

Now I’ve demonstrated to you some ugly, littered places. I’ve broadened your knowledge around the issue we call “pollution.” Each day, people do things that cause pollution. So, what can you or others do about it?

I wouldn’t have deliberated with you about the problem of pollution if I didn’t think there was a solution. A “solution” is something that fixes a problem. We need solutions for pollution!

Promisingly, there are lots of people in this world who know about pollution. They’re developing ways to curtail it as much as possible. Each day, scientists and businesses are searching for creative ways to make cleaner cars and factories. And, each day, people all over the world — including kids like you — are doing what they can to pitch in and help. I know that you’ll be gleaning more ways to help. And I bet that you already have some conceptions of your own.


Chapter Eight: Air Pollution
Good Old Earth here again. I had an artist friend make this drawing. Why do you think I’m coughing in this picture?

Of course, I don’t really need to breathe. Not like you people and animals do. And I don’t actually cough, either. Sometimes, though, I do wish that I could cough just a bit. I’d get rid of some of the air pollution that has collected in the skies.

Air pollution is a big problem. It has negative influences across the globe. Fortunately, it’s a problem that can be ameliorated. But it’s not going to be solved unless people pitch in and do their part to keep the air clean. And you can be a proponent to help in this cause!

Air pollution can cause health issues for people. You have lungs inside your chest. This picture shows you what lungs look like. Each time you inhale, your lungs are infused with air, like balloons. When you exhale, the air is evacuated from your lungs.

What happens if there’s pollution in the air you breathe? Each time you inhale, that pollution permeates your lungs. Over time, this can cause health problems. The more polluted the air, the more pollution you breathe in. And the fact is, dirty, polluted air is bad for people’s lungs. It can make them sick.


Here’s a picture of a large U.S. city. Let’s take a gander at it. Look at the skyline, where there are large buildings. You can see that the air looks kind of smoggy and nubilous. Look even closer, beyond the city. You can see a thin brownish-yellow strip of air. That’s just below the light-blue sky. That’s air pollution, or “smog.” It floats over the top of the city.

Air pollution engenders global problems. Smog and other forms of air pollution can cause problems all over Earth. There are places that create a lot of air pollution. This comes from big cities with lots of cars and factories, for instance. But they are not the only places that are defiled by air pollution. Air pollution is carried by the wind to other places. It also floats up high into the atmosphere. It goes higher than the highest airplanes. But it doesn’t float off into space. Instead, it forgathers (or “foregathers“) up in the sky.

Luckily, you can make serious contributions towards helping to solve the problem of air pollution. And you can do this in your home, school, and town. Here comes another big ‘R’ word, “responsibility.” That’s right. If people want to make sure that the air is clean, then it’s their responsibility to learn how they can help.


One of mankind’s greatest inventions was determining how to make and use electricity. You use it for so many things. This includes light bulbs, which you turn on and off with light switches. Televisions, refrigerators, air conditioners, computers, and more, are also plugged into electrical outlets.

You might have heard that too much television is bad for your brain. But I bet you didn’t know this. It’s detrimental for the air, too! Why? Here’s what happens when you watch TV. You use electricity. Using electricity can add to air pollution. And that’s even though you can’t see anything going into the air.

What do you see in this picture? First of all, it’s a long train. What’s the train carrying? It’s carrying one of the most important natural resources in the world, coal. Coal is a type of rock that people dig up out of the Earth. In some places, people burn coal to produce energy.

Energy from burning coal can be used to make electricity. This is a picture of a coal-fired power plant. But coal-fired power plants can create large amounts of air pollution.

Do you see the electrical lines running out from this plant? Let’s presuppose that someone turns on a light, a computer, or any other electrical appliance. There’s a chance that the electricity is originating from a power plant like this one. As a result, a bit more pollution is added to the air. But what happens when you turn off the lights. You do NOT add any pollution. It’s a simple thing that each of us can do to help reduce air pollution!


Do you know what this is? It’s the tailpipe of a car. And it’s another big producer of air pollution. Each time you start a car, that thrusts air pollution out of the engine through the tailpipe. That pollution is called “exhaust.”

So, what is car exhaust? How does it maculate the air?

What’s this person doing? He’s pumping gas into his car at a gas station. Gasoline is extremely useful. People use it in their cars, trucks, buses, boats, airplanes, and lawn mowers. Each day, people around the world use millions of gallons of gas.

A car’s engine burns gas. That gives it power. Here’s what happens when a driver “steps on the gas.” He or she presses down on the gas pedal. That’s on the floor of the car. That sends more gas to the car engine. It makes the car go. But, when gas burns, like coal, it creates air pollution. Millions of cars are driving around letting out exhaust. The pollution from all that traffic really starts to add up. The more cars, and the bigger those cars are, the more air pollution they spawn.

That’s why it’s a good idea to walk, ride your bike, or take the bus when you can. All of this helps to lessen the amount of air pollution.


Chapter Nine: Willy The Water Drop
Water is one of the most important natural resources on Earth. It doesn’t matter who you are, what you do, or where you live. You’ll always need a bountiful supply of water. Luckily, I have a lot of water on my surface. But I’m here to exhort you to help take care of the water. That’s if you want to make sure that Earth is always a happy, healthy place to live.

Water is such an important natural resource. So, I adjudged it a good idea to tell you a story about a special little droplet of water. I named it Willy. I found Willy a few weeks ago. Willy was in a state of repose on this leaf. He was there with a coterie of other water drops.

Yes, Willy is just one little drop of water. That’s not much compared to the gazillion water droplets there are on Earth. But you should know that every single drop of water is important. And FRESH water like Willy is the most important. You need fresh water when you’re thirsty. You need it when you take a bath. You need it for any of the thousand other things you use water for. It’s very precious. And less than one percentage point of the water on my surface is fresh!


You might be taken aback by this. You’ll learn that Willy the Water Drop is an assiduous fellow. Like most water drops, he’s always on the move. I decided to follow Willy. I wanted to see what happened to him after he landed on this leaf.

Willy wasn’t on the leaf for long. A breeze came along and shook the leaf. That sent Willy into this winding river. I wondered what would happen to Willy when he washed through all the litter in this river. Sure enough, he picked up a little dirt and grime along the way.

Later, Willy the Water Drop passed a big factory. People produce many different things in factories. Unfortunately, almost all factories produce wastewater. That happens with whatever they’re making inside the factory. They could be mixing paint, or making ink. They could just be mopping the floors at the end of the day. People in factories are using water. That dirty water needs to go somewhere when they’re done with it.

Wastewater is the dirty water that comes out of factories. But it doesn’t go to the landfill like the trash from your kitchen. Instead, it goes down the drain. Sometimes it ends up back in a river or another body of water.


Willy went past this wastewater pipe on the other side of the factory. Trust me, you don’t want to know what was coming out of this pipe. This pipe, and many others like it, can taint the fresh water supply.

What’s the water supply? Knowing that is pretty much the main intention of this story. Willy the Water Drop is part of the fresh water supply. Or at least he was when he first started out on the leaf. You, and all the creatures and plants on Earth, depend on the fresh water supply. There’s plenty for everyone. But that’s only as long as we’re all careful not to use too much, or to pollute it.

It was one morning in the river. Willy passed through a trout’s gills. Remember how you learned that polluted air is bad for your lungs? Well, polluted water is bad for a fish’s gills, too. When this fish swam by, Willy passed right through its gills. Willy might have picked up some pollutants. That’s fancy for dirty harmful things. He could have gotten them when he passed the litter or the wastewater pipe. When it went through the fish’s gills, it could have been left inside this fish. That’s not good for the fish!


Many cities get their water from reservoirs. Maybe Willy had been in the river a week or so. He then ended up in the reservoir. That’s a place made by people. That’s where we collect and store water. Reservoirs are created by building a dam across a river. By damming the river, people are able to make a big lake.

Willy floated around in the reservoir for a few days. He went down a pipe and into this water treatment plant. This is like a big bathtub. Only here, they are actually cleaning water instead of using water to clean something else. Willy sat in this treatment plant for a while. The people were sure that he didn’t have any more pollutants or other dirty stuff inside of himself. So, he was ready to go through the pipes to someone’s home.

He left the treatment plant. He went into another pipe, and then another and another. Finally, he ended up flowing out of someone’s bathroom faucet. A boy was washing his hands before dinner. That’s a good thing, because there were all sorts of germs on that boy’s hands. This is why Willy likes being a water drop. He knows he’s helping boys and girls grow up to be healthy and clean.

Willy was happy to help the boy get ready for dinner. But then it was straight down the drain for Willy! He went down the sink drain and into the drainpipe.


Do you think that was the end of Willy? Is that the last we’ll ever see of him? Well, the answer is no. Willy will be back again. Right now, he could be in a wastewater pipe. He could be floating around in a reservoir. There’s really no telling exactly where he’ll end up.

Hopefully, Willy will go through another water treatment plant. Then, they can clean off all the dirt and pollution. We want that to happen before he’s washed out of a big pipe like this and into another river.

Once he’s back in the river, Willy could flow to another reservoir. He could purl his way to the ocean. Maybe a bird will drink him! Or, maybe Willy will wind up in a sunny spot like this. The heat from the sun will make him evaporate. That would turn him into water vapor. Instead of being a water drop, he’ll be part of the air for a while. He’ll float up into the sky. There, he could become part of a cloud.

You heard it right! Clouds are actually flossy bundles of tiny little water droplets up in the sky. The water in clouds was once part of a river, lake, or stream on the surface of the Earth.

What happens when he becomes part of the clouds again? Willy the Water Drop will lallygag his way across the sky. Then, one morning it will rain. And there you’ll find Willy. He’ll be sitting on a leaf. He’ll be waiting to start his journey all over again. Perhaps he’ll end up in a bathtub or a swimming pool near you!


Lesson 66 – Inf./Deriv. Builder 

NEW WORDS: Amos, Antman, Anya, Arlo, Baez’s, BBQ, Cody, Dana, Deon, Desi, Dina, Dora, Edie, Ella, Elsa, Eric’s, Etta, Fifi, Frank’s, Gigi, Greenland, Huey, Igor, Ilsa, Indy, Inez, Izzy, Jaco, Jeff, Jodi, Judd, Judy, Kara, Karl, Katy, Kyra, Leon, Lois, Lora, Mays, Mila, Nash, Neil, Nora, Olga, Otis, Owen, Reba, Rita, Rory, Rudi, Sami, Shia, Sven, Teri, Theo, Toni, Tyra, Vlad, Walt, Yuri, aground, airdrop, airdropped, airdrops, airlines, antiques, anybody’s, anyplace, anywhere’s, appetite, auntie’s, autograph, backfield, backfields, backrest, backrooms, backstop, backup, backyards, ballplayers, bargain, beehives, birdcalls, blackballer, blackballs, blackhead, blackheads, boarder, boardgame, boardgames, bowing, braces, bracing, bringer, brogue, brownout, builder, bumper, catcall, catcalls, cathead, catheads, chairmen, cheaper, chipping, classrooms, closest, closet’s, cloudland, cloudlands, coached, coaching, comebacks, counties, coverup, cowlike, creamed, criminals, curbed, curbing, cutout, cutouts, dated, daydreamers, daydreams, dayroom, dern, diet’s, diverted, doer, dogcatchers, doorman, doormen, downside, downtowns, downturn, downturns, dreamland, dressers, drinker, earthly, earthy, eighths, enough’s, entrees, fairgrounds, fairylands, farmhand, fatherland, feedback, fielded, filler, fillers, fillies, folksongs, foxhunt, foxhunts, framing, freebie, freeways, friended, funded, funding, gardening, giveaway, graded, grading, grander, grandfatherly, grandly, grounding, groundout, groundwaters, grouper, handout, hardhead, hardheaded, hatbox, hatred, hawklike, headboard, headlight, headlights, headline, headlines, headman, headroom, headstand, headstands, headwind, headwinds, highhanded, highlander, highlighting, highlights, hillbilly, hillsides, hitters, hogged, homeboy, homeboys, homelands, homemade, homer, homeroom, homerooms, homers, homeschooled, homeschools, homey, horselike, hotels, hothouse, hourly, housed, houseflies, housekeeper, housekeepers, housekeeping, housetops, humid, icepacks, imitates, incomes, incoming, infielders, inlanders, inputs, insider, insiders, instill, instilled, instilling, instills, intake, joked, jokers, kinglike, kingmaker, kingmakers, kingship, kingships, lakeside, landings, layaway, layered, layman, laymen, leaderboard, letdowns, liars, lifelike, lighthouses, liner, liners, lineup, lineups, livelong, longhand, longing, looky, lorded, lording, lowland, lucks, manhunt, manhunts, marker, markers, matted, matting, mightn’t, monopoly, mover, newest, nighter, nighters, niner, niners, ninths, nosed, nosing, nowhere’s, oldie, oldies, outfielder, outfielders, outfoxes, outfoxing, outjumped, outlanders, overhunted, paired, pairing, papa’s, paperbacks, password, pastor, pilot’s, playland, playoff, playoffs, poodles, powerhouse, putdowns, redheads, ritzy, schoolchild, schoolchildren, schoolhouses, seaman, seamen, shorthand, skilled, softcover, squall’s, stopwatch, strongest, swordsman, swordsmen, takeaway, tanker, timekeeper, tomcats, trainman, trainmen, turnabout, upstair, valve, week’s, when’ll, workhorse, zookeeper, zookeepers

Buy this on layaway.

I bet he blackballs us from the club.

The room was grandly decorated.

Sweep the doorsteps.

That snoot has a highhanded manner.

Incomes in our State dropped.

He’s guilty of a coverup.

She’s too hardheaded to listen.

I saw 2 ballgames last week.

Schoolhouses used to be just one room.

I’ll be highlighting Frank’s work today.

These animals live in lowland areas.

Those fillies aren’t a year old.

He’s got the brownest teeth I’ve seen.

The tanker has run aground.

You looked better with browner hair.

That schoolchild is crying.

That tomboy plays on the boys’ team.

Come on homeboys, let’s get going.

Last night I dreamed about fairylands.

Our coaches are tough on us.

Hand me 2 eye droppers.


I’m headed downtown.

She’s my closest friend.

Anywhere’s a good place to sit.

The outfielder caught a tough fly ball.

That blackballer lost most of his friends.

Are you a bringer of good, or bad, news?

Grandma forgets lots of things.

Their farm has two beehives.

The ballpark is crowded.

The golfer is practicing his chipping.

Come over anytime!

The old man has an earthy sense of humor.

Auntie’s coming up the driveway!

Have you read these paperbacks?

That snack curbed my hunger.

6 counties will get Federal aid.

The catcalls made the diva cry.

That’s grounds for getting fired.

The President called in the bank Chairmen.

There’s too much hatred in our country.

Enough’s enough, quiet down!

Granny loves gardening.


The schoolhouse alarm went off.

We’re bracing for a hard winter.

Those 2 teams have this year’s strongest backfields.

The fillers in this food aren’t good for you.

It’s humid in that hothouse.

You’re in dreamland if you think I’m going to buy you that!

I’m more comfy when I use that backrest.

Poodles are yapping little beasties!

Here’s the takeaway: crime doesn’t pay.

Can a lowball bid get it for a bargain?

You don’t see dogcatchers these days.

It’s anybody’s guess!

They’ve got one of those singing doorbells.

He has a cowlike figure.

I love Joan Baez’s folksongs.

Cut the pie into eighths.

That crazy driver keeps running into curbs.

He imitates birdcalls.

Paste this cutout next to your drawing.

That hard worker is a “doer!”

Her comebacks are brutal if you make her mad.

Is there anyplace here that serves BBQ?


The Board has funded an addition to our school.

Grouper is one of my favorite fish entrees.

It’s so hot, I bet we have a brownout.

She’s bowing to the audience.

Your shoes are caked with mud!

Is that a wildcat growling by those trees?

That chicken clucks all day long.

They’ve overhunted deer in this part of the State.

Mom’s hatbox fell off the closet’s top shelf.

This old headboard is an antique.

Those city tomcats make a racket each night.

Benny outjumped Dallas in the track and field meet.

Icepacks are melting in Greenland.

100s of builders went to the Housing Trade Show.

Our outfielders drop too many fly balls.

She’s off in some faraway cloudland.

That actress gave me an autograph!

His groundout lost them the baseball game.

This will be an uphill battle.

Mom’s buying some new bedding for the guest room.

The robber hunkered down in his hideaway.

Those girls are the best hitters on our softball team.


The classrooms emptied fast during the fire drill.

I dated your dad for 9 months before we got married.

Arrange these cutouts at everyone’s dinner place.

Highwaymen used to raid travelers all over Britain.

He called his book of photos “Cloudlands.”

Tiger Woods is at the top of the leaderboard.

That farmworker is learning English.

We sold our lakeside cottage.

The Captain yelled, “All aboard!”

This diet’s downside is that you’re always hungry!

Put these old blue jeans in the giveaway pile.

You have gorgeous handwriting.

Pass the ranch salad dressing.

That highlander has an unusual brogue.

That new dress looks boxy on you.

The housetops were covered with snow.

My favorite boardgame is Monopoly.

He daydreams about being a rock star.

We grouped the kids by their height for the picture.

Her grading system is unfair.


Let’s head inland to avoid the squall’s worst winds.

I can’t believe that he friended me on Facebook.

They airdropped the supplies this morning.

A country might call itself “The Fatherland.”

I keep forgetting my password!

Ask for funding to do this research project.

She homeschools her children.

Those inlanders talk with a strange accent.

We have an upstair laundry room.

The fairgrounds were packed!

We have boardgames like checkers and chess.

He fielded the line drive and threw the runner out.

They’ve diverted the airplanes to fly over our house.

The soldiers returned to their homelands after the war.

He hasn’t aged well.

Those guys thought about busting out of jail.

These groundwaters are polluted.

He struck him out with a fastball!

Which downtowns have you visited?

He’s crowing about his victory.

That pilot’s landings are smooth.


I coached the team for 5 years.

He’s reading in the dayroom.

How did bedbugs get in here?

She’s worked for 3 companies.

The schoolchildren seem cheerful!

I hate these wild grasses in my yard.

I’ve never been to a grander party.

That hillbilly has no front teeth.

My new farmhand works hard.

Everyone’s invited!

We housed 2 families during the hurricane.

I’ll fly only these 2 airlines.

Look at his hawklike nose!

We went to Playland on his birthday.

I’ve got a good grounding of the facts.

Is that a non-Earthly being?

It’s mean to catcall a performer.

We have 2 dressings to go with the turkey.

The freeways are bumper to bumper.

I just shot my lowest golf score ever!

We have a cheaper softcover version of that book.

I busted mom’s best vase.


Give me feedback on my speech.

We need some filler to stretch out the program.

She’s nervous about the outlanders.

I need you for an airdrop mission.

She is her mother’s prime caregiver.

I’ve graded the book reports.

Our boarders are very polite.

My wallet is on the dresser.

I got this freebie at the Fair.

Children, what are your ages?

Take me out to the ballgame!

That derned cat left us two hairballs today!

I’ll be framing this photo.

This polish cleans really well.

The ballplayers went on strike.

Work the equation out on the blackboard.

That pilot has flown 10 airdrops.

The ball slammed into the backstop.

They have a powerhouse backfield.

The timekeeper dropped his stopwatch.

Our clothes dryer is on the blink.

You explained that in a roundabout way.


These are this year’s All-State infielders.

Daydreamers can be creative.

There’s something creepy about that new boarder.

Groundhogs are messing up our backyards.

Are any of these dressers antiques?

His coaching job pays well.

They stay in ritzy hotels.

He’s got a kindly, grandfatherly manner.

C’mon, you’re kidding me!

Her hourly rate is 10 bucks per hour.

I’m curbing my appetite by chewing gum.

They’ve farmed that land for 30 years.

There’s a man overboard!

Deals are made in backrooms.

Criminals belong in prison.

The “Bearcats” won the game.

I grew up homeschooled.

Hand me the coloring book.

Why’d you do that, homeboy?

What’s your backup plan?

We creamed the other team.

He’s got a horselike laugh.


Let’s play checkers.

My dad’s a home builder.

He’s become a heavy drinker.

This week’s highs will be in the 80s.

They’re finally boarding the plane.

Turnabout is fair play.

Nowhere’s worse than this place.

The coach instilled a sense of hard work with the team.

My Aunt Bess is a zookeeper.

Cary loves outer space movies.

Now looky here, child!

When will papa be back?

Barb loves outfoxing dad!

Deon built three snowmen!

Eric’s got lots of power, and he is a kingmaker.

Ella is the nicest of my pals.

Hmm, mightn’t you tell Gigi you’re sorry?

I’m tired of your ugly putdowns.

Ivan, have you seen the movie “Antman?”

Finn is a doorman at a fancy hotel.

The swordsmen bowed to each other.

I think Boyd lied about that.


When’ll the others get here?

That song’s a golden oldy! (Also “oldie.”)

Gwen lucks into good summer jobs.

Hans joked about his bad haircut.

As an insider, Mila is always in the know.

They’re on a manhunt for the bad guy.

Lynn can now do a headstand!

Luke, stop nosing around my desk.

Milt is a messy housekeeper.

Lucy has kind of horsey teeth, and should get braces.

Dern, there’s a blackhead on my face!

Pete, have you made any headway on your project?

The girls are dressed in pretty jumpers.

Nora is a liar.

Nope, I won’t do that!

They made it to the playoffs!

Mama is great at housekeeping.

It’s good to take care of one’s things.

Olga had a lively party.

Your dog Fifi has lots of matted hair.

Nash, come indoors, NOW!


Our city is in the middle of a downturn.

Rand, pass out these handouts.

My horse lost a horseshoe.

Reba has nicely layered hair.

Russ has the yellowest teeth I’ve seen.

Our dog has to stay outdoors.

Sven died three Mays ago.

They have the newest model cars now.

Her papa’s a redhead, right?

Coach Saul is a real hardhead.

Rory dove headfirst into the pool.

Theo, is our headlight out?

Troy, now’s a good time to take your shower.

Wilt, stop lording it over me!

The Joker is the worst Batman criminal!

Vlad, tell me your inner-most thoughts.

The huntsmen rode into the woods.

I hear that Vern has a high income.

Team, I need your inputs about this tough problem.

Yuri worked hard, all the livelong day.

Anya nosed about her brother’s closet.

Burt loves photos of lighthouses.


Our school’s headman is leaving.

Amos, you are justly mad about that.

Mom, Bert hogged the cake at the party!

Alex, is there enough headroom in the front seat?

Carl has a kingly manner about himself.

Cody, get the workmen some water.

Dina, bring me those colored markers.

Elsa, cut the pie into ninths.

Erma has a longing for candy.

Coach Chad gave us the lineup for the game.

The people shown in the wax museum are so lifelike!

Etta, your newly painted house looks great!

The plane had to fight a strong headwind.

I hereby make you a Knight of the Round Table!

All the highways are backed up today.

His kingship lasted thirty years.

Dana loves Lays potato chips.

Dora, how’d all these houseflies get in the kitchen?

Poor Desi has had lots of letdowns in the last two years.


Fitz loves to listen to golden oldies.

I bet those doormen make big tips.

This place has a homey feel to it.

Izzy just hit a homer!

Jaco dove headlong into his work.

The headlines in the news are often bad.

There used to be lots of foxhunts in England.

Ilsa hates doing housework.

Indy is going to the playoff game.

The winning team lorded it over the losers.

Our dog, Igor, is an outdoor dog.

Those headlights are too bright.

Inez yelled, “Incoming!” as she dove into the pool.

Gino, have you put the letters in the mail?

Grandpa Hank was a seaman most of his life.

Huey, put a new liner in the litter box.

Grandma Katy lived to a ripe old age.

Mom, the mover has a question.

Kent, let’s use the green matting in this picture frame.

Kirk is a real workhorse!

Kyra, have you ever played horseshoes?

Kurt, the Forty-Niners are leading the game.


Judd makes a good living.

The hardy seamen brought in a ton of fish.

Kara, please write this up in shorthand.

Kern, do you know who marked up this page?

It’s fun to watch how Judy outfoxes Jeff at chess.

Karl, have you tried mama’s peach pie?

Jodi, I’m pairing you with Edie on the field trip.

Knox, I like how you are patting the cat’s head softly.

Jess was late to homeroom class.

I’m dizzy after doing all those headstands.

The kings did not go to war.

I need your input, Joan.

Our cat, Mack, is an indoor cat.

The paper in this old box is yellower than in the new box.

Marv, do you have any good leads in your job hunt?

If Matt joins their team, they’ll have a leg up next year.

Lois, don’t believe those liars.

Liev is a maker of fine chairs.

Lars, check out the intake valve on the car.


Loyd seems to like to date redheads.

Lora was screaming about the blackheads on her face.

Leon wants to be a great swordsman.

Neil likes to write sad odes.

Your Uncle Noel spent his life as a trainman.

The team has one of its best lineups ever.

At our bakery, we are makers of the finest desserts.

Otis, I don’t believe anything those jokers say.

Sailor, secure the anchor to the cathead!

Nick, which of these liners is best to put in the kitchen drawers?

Owen is a skilled huntsman.

The pilot said, “The headwinds this past month have been tough.”

Ruth got the highest grade on the exam.

Rita, tell us the highlights of your trip.

It’s not legal to have a foxhunt in England anymore.

There are downturns in many cities across the U.S.

My grandfather Seth was a lighthouse keeper.

Even though Stan is a layman, he can preach a great sermon.

They’re having a party for all the trainmen in the county.


She pats the dirt gently after planting the flower.

The doors are locked in all the homerooms.

Shia makes the best homemade ice cream!

The alien said, “We want to meet with your leaders.”

You might prefer this newer model bicycle.

Rudi pulled an all-nighter to study for the test.

Sami and Teri paired up to do a science project.

Rick, do you have a black marker?

I’m gonna get you!

Toni patted her kitty for a half hour!

The hillsides are covered with sheep.

Vera is a little homely looking, so make-up helps her look pretty.

That bunny hops with a limp.

Tyra hit twenty-one homers this season.

The headline in today’s paper doesn’t look good for Walt.

Anna, can you translate these notes into longhand for me?

Did everyone get the handout?

How many of you are looking for jobs as housekeepers?

The detective has led many manhunts.


The insiders think they’re about to sell the company.

We need to instill a sense of kindness in our children.

Kingmakers often over-step their boundaries.

I’m laying aside our differences for now.

Too many kingships have focused on wars.

A group of laymen helped fund a new building for the church.

Arlo is getting great marks in his classes.

Mom, a workman is at the front door.

If students planned better, they wouldn’t have to pull all-nighters.

He was a forty-niner in the California gold rush.

When ships sail at sea, their anchors rest on catheads.

He is kinglike when he gives a speech.

Are we instilling enough pride in the team?

The zookeepers here love the animals.

The keepers at Sea World like the seal shows the best.

Our pastor instills a respect within us for all of the world’s great religions.


Click on this link to move forward to Module E, Lessons 1 – 10


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